Substance Use among Early Adolescent Girls: Risk and Protective Factors
1. Girls whose mothers know where they are after school are less likely to use alcohol.
2. Girls whose mothers know their friends are less likely to use alcohol or prescription drugs.
3. Girls who can always reach their mothers are less likely to use alcohol, prescription drugs or inhalants.
4. Girls who go home after school are less likely to use alcohol or prescription drugs.
The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse Among Girls And Young Women Ages 8-22
1. Girls with highly involved parents and parents who provide positive feedback are less likely to smoke, drink or use drugs.
2. Girls who feel they can talk with their parents and who do not have frequent arguments with their parents are less likely to smoke, drink or use drugs.
3. Teens who consider religious beliefs important are almost three times less likely to drink, binge drink and smoke
4. Teens who consider religious beliefs important almost four times less likely to use marijuana and seven times likelier to use illicit drugs.
5. Teens who never attend religious services are more than twice as likely to smoke
6. Teens who never attend religious services twice as likely to drink.
7. Teens who never attend religious services are three times more likely to use marijuana and binge drink
8. Teens who never attend religious services are almost four times more likely to use illicit drugs
9. Girls who do not participate in any extracurricular activities are twice as likely to report current smoking (25.5 percent vs. 12.4 percent) and are also likelier to drink alcohol (19.2 percent vs. 12.4 percent) and use marijuana (10 percent vs. 4.8 percent) than girls who are engaged in multiple (three or more) activities.
Maternal Employment and Children’s Achievement in Context: A Meta-Analysis of Four Decades of Research
- In general children with working mothers had similar academic achievement to non-working mothers
- However having a working mother during middle school and high school was negatively associated with academic achievement (Worse grades or test scores).
Questions for you:
If a mom is at home because she cannot get a job, is her presence at home the same as the mother who chooses to stay home?
Do you think studies should determine why mothers are working or not working before including them in studies?